Etiology of acute gastroenteritis among pre-school children in Peshawar-KP Pakistan, a case control study. Etiology of acute gastroenteritis.

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Farid Ullah Shah
Jahangir Anjum
Muhammad Daud
Wasim Ahmad

Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the etiology of acute viral gastroenteritis among preschool children in Pesha-war, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Methodology: A total of 420 stool samples were gathered from children under five, displaying symptoms like diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, and abdominal cramps. Recruitment took place at a Peshawar tertiary care hospital, approved by the institute's IRB. The cohort was split evenly into 210 cases and 210 controls. Healthy controls\ originated from the outpa-tient department with no diarrhea within the last 10 days, while cases were from the emergency, inpatient, and outpa-tient units. Diagnosis criteria encompassed at least one vomiting episode in the last 24 hours and over three loose stools daily, enduring less than 5 days. Moderate to severe cases included indicators like skin turgor loss, sunken eyes, IV treatment, dysentery, or gastroenteritis-related hospitalization. A 2-month follow-up tracked complications and mortal-ity, with parental consent secured.
Results: Among participants, 60% (n=126/210) were male and 40% (n=84/210) were female. The average age was 20 months (range 1-50 months). Clinical symptoms were evident during enrollment; cases displayed watery diarrhea (4 episodes on average in 24 hours, lasting 2.50 days), and 48% (n=101) experienced vomiting (3 episodes on average in 24 hours). Acute gastroenteritis symptoms persisted for an average of 4.0 days. Severe and mild dehydration were ob-served in 12% (n=25) and 28% (n=58) of patients, respectively. Additional symptoms included fever (8%, n=17), ab-dominal pain (8%, n=17), and dysentery (5%, n=10). The majority (90%, n=189) received intravenous fluids, while 10% (n=21) were treated orally.
Conclusion: The common causative organism for childhood diarrhea is adenovirus.



Key words: Acute gastroenteritis, Acute diarrhea, Vomiting, Nausea, Abdominal Cramps

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How to Cite
Farid Ullah Shah, Jahangir Anjum, Muhammad Daud, & Wasim Ahmad. (2023). Etiology of acute gastroenteritis among pre-school children in Peshawar-KP Pakistan, a case control study. JMMC, 14(1), 13-16. https://doi.org/10.62118/jmmc.v14i1.281
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Original Article